These are the main 16 rites of Hinduism, these rites are performed from before birth to the end

Ujjain. Some rituals are performed even before the birth of the child. In relation to the sacraments, the proto guru Shankaracharya has said-

Sanskars hi names
-Brahmasutra commentary 1/1/4

That is, the action which is done to inculcate the qualities in a person is called Sanskar.

It is written in the ritual method –
Janamna Jayate Shudra Sanskaraddvija Uchyate.
That is, all are Shudras by birth and through sanskars a person is made a Dwij.

How many rituals?
There are 40 sacraments mentioned in Gautam Smriti Shastra. In some places 48 sacraments have also been told. Maharishi Angira has mentioned 25 sacraments. At present, according to Maharishi Ved Vyas Smriti Shastra, 16 sacraments are prevalent, according to that-

Gardhanam Punsavanam Seemanto Jatkarma Ch. NamkriyaNishkramne Annashanam Vapankriya:..
Karnavedho Vratadesho Vedarambh procedure:. Keshant Snanmudvaho VivahaagniParigraha:..
Tretagnisamgrahascheti Sanskara: Shodash Smrita:. (Vyasmriti 1/13-15)

Our life is greatly influenced by our culture. The worship, yagya, chanting etc., which are done in the programs for the rituals, also have scientific significance. The brief information of these 16 sacraments is as follows-

1. Conception ceremony
It is such a sacrament by which we get worthy, virtuous and ideal children. How to conceive a child according to the scriptures? Its details are given. Through this sanskar, sexuality is replaced by good thoughts. It has also been proved scientifically.

2. Punsavana Sanskar
This sanskar is performed two to three months after conception. This sanskar is performed to enable the mother to take proper care of her unborn child. There are two major benefits of Punsavan Sanskar – son attainment and healthy, beautiful quality children.

3. Seamantonayana Sanskar
This sanskar is performed in the sixth or eighth month of pregnancy. The fruit of this sanskar is also the purification of the womb. At this time the child growing in the womb becomes capable of learning. In order to bring good qualities, nature and actions, the mother behaves in the same way, behaves and behaves in the same way.

4. Jatkarma Sanskar
By performing this sanskar as soon as the child is born, all the defects related to pregnancy are removed. Before piercing the placenta, honey and ghee are given to the newborn baby with a golden spoon or ring finger (number three). Ghee is life-prolonging and vata and bile and honey is anti-phlegm. Licking ghee and honey to the baby with a golden spoon destroys all the tridoshas (Vata, Pitta and Kapha).

5. Naming Ceremony
The naming ceremony is performed on the 11th or hundredth day after the birth of the child. The name of the child is decided by the Brahmin on the basis of astrology. The child is given darshan of the sun by licking honey. With his new name, everyone wishes him good health and happiness.
Ayurvarcho abhivridhischa siddhivryavahratetha. Namakarmaphalam tvetat samudishtam manishibhi:. (memoirs)

6. Evacuation Ceremony
The fruit of this sanskar has been told by the scholars for the increase of age- Nishkramanadayusho Vridhirpyuddishta Manishibhih. This sanskar is performed in the fourth or sixth month after the birth of the child. Worshiping the deities like Sun and Moon and giving them darshan to the child is the main process of this rite. Our body is made up of earth, water, fire, air and space, which are called Panchabhutas. Therefore the father prays to these deities for the welfare of the child in this ceremony.

7. Annaprashan Sanskar
While in the mother’s womb, the dirt goes into the stomach of the baby, due to which defects occur in that baby. Those defects are destroyed through Annaprashan Sanskar. When the baby becomes 6-7 months old and his teeth start coming out, digestion power starts getting faster, then this sanskar is performed. After worshiping the deities in the auspicious time, the parents etc. offer kheer to the child while reciting the following mantra with a spoon of gold or silver-
Shivau Te Stam Vrihiyavavblasavdomdhau.
Etou Yaksam Vi Badhete Etou Munchato Anhas:.. (Atharvaveda 8/2/18)

8. Mundan Sanskar
At the end of the first year of the infant’s age or on the completion of the third, fifth or seventh year, the child’s hair is cut, which is called Vapan Kriya Sanskar, Mundan Sanskar or Chudakarma Sanskar. After this, bath is given by applying curd-butter on the head of the child and other auspicious activities are performed. The purpose of its rites is to increase the strength, age and brilliance of the child.

9. Karnavedhana Sanskar
Under this tradition, the ears of the child are pierced. That is why it is called Karnavedhana Sanskar. This sacrament was performed between six months after birth to five years of age. According to the belief, the rays of the sun pass through the holes in the ears to sanctify the boy and girl and make them prosperous.

10. Upanayana Sanskar
This rite is also called Vratadesha and Yagyopaveet Sanskar. According to the scriptures, the second birth of Brahmin, Kshatriya and Vaishya takes place through this sanskar. The main purpose of this sanskar is to make the child wear the Yagyopaveet (Janeu) duly. There are three threads in the thread. These are the symbols of three deities- Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh. Through this sacrament, the child gets the right to chant Gayatri, study the Vedas, etc.

11. Vidyarambh Sanskar
After the Upanayana ceremony, the child gets the right to study the Vedas. Under this sanskar, the education of the child is started after seeing the auspicious time at a certain time. This is called Vidyarambha Sanskar.

12. Keshant Sanskar
In Vidyarambha Sanskar, the child studies the Vedas while living in the Gurukul. At that time, he fully observes celibacy and there is a law for him to wear hair and hair (beard) and thread. After the completion of studies, Keshant Sanskar is performed in the Gurukul itself. After this, the process of Shmashru Vapan (beard making) is performed, hence it is also called Shmashru Sanskar. This sanskar is performed only when the sun is Uttarayan. In some scriptures it is also called Godan Sanskar.

13. Samvartan Rite
Commutation means to return again. Samavartan is the last rites of study. After the completion of studies, the brahmachari returns to his home on the orders of his guru. That is why it is called Samvartan Sanskar. In this ritual, a Brahmachari is bathed in 8 urns filled with water energized by Veda mantras, hence it is also called Vedasnan Sanskar. After this sanskar, a brahmachari becomes entitled to enter the householder’s life.

14. Marriage Ceremony
Vi means specifically, vahana means carrying. Marriage means taking a woman exclusively by a man to his home. After marriage, husband and wife live together by following Dharma. According to the Puranas, the son born of the best marriages like Brahma etc. is the one to protect the ancestors.

15. Marriage Fire Ceremony
The fire in which the rituals like Home etc. are performed in the marriage ceremony is called Aavasthya. This is also called marriage fire. After marriage, the bride and groom bring that fire in their house and establish it in a holy place and perform havan every morning and evening according to the tradition of their clan. This Havan, performed daily, is said to be essential for the Brahmins. In this fire, sacrifices are made for the sake of all the gods. Maharishi Yajnavalkya has written that-
Karma Smartam Vivagnau Kurveet Pratyah Grihi.
Yajnavalkya Smriti, Acharadhyay (2/17)

16. Funeral Rites
It means the last sacrifice. Even today before the funeral procession, a fire is taken from the house by burning it. This is how the pyre is lit. It means that the fire of the last yajna is lit by the person who lit the fire in the house after marriage. With death the person himself becomes home in this final sacrifice. Here funeral is called sacrament because the dead body is destroyed through it.

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Last Updated Jun 15, 2021, 10:36 AM IST